INNOVATIONS IN PYROLYSIS
FOR WASTE TREATMENT
Each producer generates different types of waste. In this series, realized with the collaboration of the “Scientific Research Global Institute, Hazardous Waste Disposal Innovations” and AEP Engineering, Il Velo di Maya MAGAZINE presents you innovative technologies and solutions for their treatment. Consultant: Vitaly Shablov, director and chief designer, Ph.D. in ecological safety
Industrialization, rapid growth of population and industry, at a constant pace, lead humanity to an environmental disaster due to the very rapid accumulation of waste.
Since the last century, the main method of dealing with garbage is to burn it. It gave energy, warmth and the illusion that humanity has finally solved this problem. The number of incineration plants has grown and, at the same time, information has been gathered on the extremely negative impact of this method of waste disposal on nature and humanity.
Unfortunately, the most advanced incinerator fume filter systems are unable to capture the nano-ashes produced during waste incineration. Nanosol is the main carrier of particularly toxic substances, dioxins and furans released into the atmosphere are one of the main negative factors affecting the environment.
Pyrolysis is one of the most environmentally friendly and promising technologies for transforming waste polyolefins (contaminated plastic waste) into energy. And while pyrolysis is a fairly old technology, unfortunately there are a number of serious technical problems preventing the widespread use of pyrolysis equipment in waste processing. The main problem is the separation of non-condensable pyrolysis gases from steam with their subsequent 100% purification.
All over the world, as a rule, heat exchangers, dry and wet scrubbers, filters of various designs, irrigation and other technologies are used to solve this problem. But none of the traditional technologies gives the desired result. Heavy hydrocarbon fractions (resins, paraffins, bitumen, etc.) condense during cooling in the pipelines of process equipment and create gas-tight plugs, leading to emergencies and the impossibility of further operation of pyrolysis equipment in mode continues. Dirty pyrolysis gases must be burned in flares or atmospheric burners to heat the pyrolysis reactors. With this scheme, one cannot speak of process ecology and economy. 100% raw pyrolysis gases should not be stored, compressed or liquefied. These gases cannot be used as green gas fuel for gas fired burners or power plants and attempts to do so will disable any gas equipment.
Since 2014, our designers, engineers and chemists have been working on this challenging task. In 2018, by order of a German company, the world’s first container-type pyrolysis plant was developed and produced, which has an innovative 100% pyrolysis gas purification system based on membrane technologies. Unique membrane filter elements have been created that operate at temperatures up to +1100°C. When the pyrolysis gases pass through the membrane, the temperature of the gas-vapour mixture drops by more than +540°C in 1 millisecond without supplying any refrigerant. This innovation makes it possible to condense all heavy hydrocarbons abruptly in the first compartment of the gas purification unit.
Ultra low pressures
In contrast to classic throttling, we achieve a clear decrease in gas temperature at ultra-low pressures down to 0.1 MPa. This technical solution is one of the main elements in the purification of heavily polluted gases and gas mixtures. The second element of the system is a composite filter-separator, which allows to separate the condensate from the incondensable gases at the molecular level and, therefore, guarantee their 100% purification. The Pyrolysis Gas Filtration and Condensing Unit is an explosion-proof and fully computerized product that allows the pyrolysis complex to operate in continuous mode for 6 to 12 months while treating any non-chlorine containing waste, including non-sorted plastic, rubber, wood, fabrics, etc.
Membrane filter element garlands have a very long service life of 2 to 6 years. They self-clean automatically during operation of the complex and fully regenerate during the scheduled maintenance period of the equipment. Our pyrolysis plants have no chimneys in their design and do not use hydrocarbon combustion to heat the reactors. Heating is done using electricity obtained from waste processing. While processing 30 tons per day of waste plastic, we are able to generate up to 3.0 – 3.5 MW/h of electricity and up to 2.7 MW/h of heat.
At the same time, our technology guarantees the complete absence of carbon emissions from the reactor. During the operation of our container type pyrolysis complexes, there is no discharge of polluted water and there is no negative impact on the earth. If it is impossible to remove PVC from undifferentiated plastics, a module is integrated in the condensation of the complex which allows the chlorine to be completely eliminated from the polyolefins and neutralized into salts. Innovative technology opens up very broad prospects for its application not only in the field of pyrolysis. It will be required in various industries where it is necessary to separate, condense and purify 100% polluted gas and steam-gas streams.
If you find in this information solution for your needs and have any questions, please describe your situation to email@example.com and we will reply as soon as possible.